image of Langston Hughes
The Big Sea by Langston Hughes

Primary and Secondary Sources for Hughes, The Big Sea, and the Harlem Renaissance

Primary Works

The Big Sea: An Autobiography. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.

The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Ed. Arnold Rampersad. New York: Vintage,


I Wonder as I Wander: An Autobiographical Journey. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.

The Langston Hughes Reader. New York: George Braziller, 1958. (poems, short fiction,

essays, and excerpts from works such as The Big Sea)

"The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain." The Nation, 1926; reprinted in The Norton

Anthology of African American Literature, Eds. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and

Nellie Y. McKay, 1997: 1267-1271. (essay on Harlem Renaissance aesthetics)

The Ways of White Folks. New York: Knopf, 1934. (Short Stories, includes the

"autobiographical" story "The Blues I’m Playing")

The Weary Blues. New York: Knopf, 1926. (Poems)

Secondary Works on/Reviews of The Big Sea

Barrett, Lindon. "The Gaze of Langston Hughes: Subjectivity, Homoeroticism, and the

Feminine in The Big Sea." Yale Journal of Criticism 12 (Fall 1999): 383-397.

Miller, R. Baxter. "‘Even After I Was Dead’: The Big Sea--Paradox, Preservation and

Holistic Time." Black American Literature Forum 11( 1977): 39-45.

Scrimgeour, J.D. "Casting the Nets: Audience and Selfhood in Langston Hughes’s The

Big Sea." A/B: Auto/Biography Studies 13 (1998): 97-115.

Woods, Katherine. "A Negro Intellectual Tells His Life Story." New York Times Book

Review 25 August 1940; rpt. in Gates and Appiah, eds., Langston Hughes: Critical Perspectives Past and Present: 23-26. (review)

Wright, Richard. "Forerunner and Ambassador." The New Republic 18 October 1940:

103; rpt. in Gates and Appiah: 21-23. (review)

Critical Studies on Hughes

Bloom, Harold. ed. Langston Hughes. New York: Chelsea, 1989.

Emanuel, James A. Langston Hughes. New York: Twayne, 1967.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., and K. A. Appiah, eds. Langston Hughes: Critical Perspectives

Past and Present. New York: Amistad, 1993.

The Langston Hughes Review (journal devoted to the study of Hughes’s life and art,

published at the University of Georgia)

Miller, R. Baxter. The Art and Imagination of Langston Hughes. Lexington: UP of

Kentucky, 1989.

O’Daniel, Therman B., ed. Langston Hughes: Black Genius: A Critical Evaluation. New

York: Morrow, 1971.

Trotman, C. James, ed. Langston Hughes: The Man, His Art, and His Continuing

Influence. New York: Garland, 1995.

Biographical Studies

Berry, Faith. Langston Hughes: Before and Beyond Harlem. Westport, CT: Lawrence

Hill, 1983.

Rampersad, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2 Vols. New York: Oxford UP,


Non-print Media

The Harlem Renaissance and Beyond. 1 videocassette. Mt. Kisco, NY: Guidance

Associates, 1990.

Looking for Langston. Dir. Isaac Julien. New York: Third World Newsreel, 1989. (film)

The Poetry of Langston Hughes. 1 cassette. Caedmon, 1969.

The Spoken Arts Treasury of 100 Modern American Poets Reading Their Poems. 1

cassette. New Rochelle, NY: Spoken Arts, 1985.

Websites (link to other Hughes sites) (information on Hughes and other Harlem Renaissance authors) (official site for the February 2002 celebration at the University of

Kansas) (list of sites devoted to Hughes) (official site of The Langston Hughes Review)

General Studies on The Harlem Renaissance

Anderson, Jervis. This Was Harlem: A Cultural Portrait, 1900-1950. New York: Farrar

Straus Giroux, 1981.

Baker, Houston A., Jr. Afro-American Poetics: Revisions of Harlem and the Black

Aesthetic. Madison: U of Wisconsin P, 1988.

------. Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.

Bontemps, Arna, ed. The Harlem Renaissance Remembered: Essays. New York: Dodd,


Brown, Lloyd W. "The African Heritage and the Harlem Renaissance: A Re-evaluation."

African Literature Today 9 (1978): 1-9.

De Jongh, James. Vicious Modernism: Black Harlem and the Literary Imagination. New

York: Cambridge UP, 1990.

Early, Gerald. "Three Notes Towards a Cultural Definition of the Harlem Renaissance."

Callaloo 14 (1991): 136-149.

Floyd, Samuel A., ed. Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance: A Collection of Essays.

New York: Greenwood, 1990.

Harris, Trudier, ed. Afro-American Writers from the Harlem Renaissance to 1940.

Detroit: Gale Research, 1987.

Hart, Robert C. "Black-White Literary Relations in the Harlem Renaissance." American

Literature 44 (1973): 612-628.

Huggins, Nathan I. Harlem Renaissance. New York: Oxford UP, 1971.

Ikonne, Chidi. From Du Bois to Van Vechten: The Early New Negro Literature, 1903-

1926. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1981.

Kellner, Bruce. The Harlem Renaissance: A Historical Dictionary for the Era.

Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1984.

Kent, George E. "Patterns of the Harlem Renaissance: The Fork in the Road." Black

World June 1972: 13-24, 76-80.

Kramer, Victor A. and Robert A. Russ, eds. Harlem Renaissance Re-Examined: A

Revised and Expanded Edition. Troy, NY: Whitson, 1997.

Lewis, David Levering. When Harlem Was in Vogue. New York: Knopf, 1981.

Martin, Tony. Literary Garveyism: Garvey, Black Arts, and the Harlem Renaissance.

Dover, MA: Majority, 1983.

Perry, Margaret. The Harlem Renaissance: An Annotated Bibliography and

Commentary. New York: Garland, 1982.

------. Silence to the Drums: A Survey of the Literature of the Harlem Renaissance.

Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1976.

Scruggs, Charles. "‘All Dressed Up But No Place to Go’: The Black Writer and His

Audience During the Harlem Renaissance." American Literature 48 (1977): 543-563.

------. The Sage in Harlem: H.L. Mencken and the Black Writers of the 1920s.

Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1984.

Singh, Amritjit. The Novels of the Harlem Renaissance: Twelve Black Writers, 1923-33.

University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1976.

------, William S. Shiver, and Stanley Brodwin, eds. The Harlem Renaissance:

Reevaluations. New York: Garland, 1989.

Story, Ralph D. "Patronage and the Harlem Renaissance: You Get What You Pay For."

CLA Journal 32 (1988): 261-280.

Wagner, Jean. Black Poets of the United States: From Paul Lawrence Dunbar to

Langston Hughes. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1973.

Wintz, Gary D. Black Culture and the Harlem Renaissance. Houston: Rice UP, 1988.


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Image of Langston Hughes is from the book cover of The Big Sea (permission pending).
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